Stanford and UC Berkely Researchers recently discovered that ChatGPT was getting worse at many tasks, including math and writing working code, but better at visual reasoning and more hesitant about answering tricky questions.
While poring over their research paper, my wife approached me with a real problem. The Scottish Power app had refused to accept that her new meter reading of 0014340 was clearly more than the last reading of 0014289 from a 'smart meter'. Had Scottish Power fired up ChatGPT for their new app update or simply botched their data validator?
In the old English tradition of seeking a clear explanation for everything that goes wrong, I reached out to them for clarity. That’s one thing the English do much better than Americans. In the UK, when a train is delayed, they make a determined effort to explain that it was caused by a fallen tree on the track, a signal fault, or a staffing shortage. In America, they just tell you it is out of service. It is not like you are able to personally do anything about these things, but at least you can plan your expectations accordingly.
As we start to scale up the widespread of large language models (LLMs), a similar more English approach to explaining the cause of new problems that arise will be required.
Quantifying ChatGPT performance
The Stanford researchers decided to investigate ChatGPT performance after numerous reports that ChatGPT was getting worse at many things. Was this something like politics and crime, where everyone knows it was always better way back when, or was there a measurable change? There was a ton of previous research on Holistic Evaluations of Language Models for doing one-off evaluations on language skills like translation and summarization or passing difficult exams in professional domains like medicine and law.
But the authors wrote:
To the best of our knowledge, the existing works do not systematically monitor the longitudinal drifts of widely used LLM services such as GPT-4 and GPT-3.5 over time. Monitoring model performance shifts is emerging for deploying machine learning (ML) services in the wild.
They focused on four tasks that were straightforward to quantify.
- Solving math problems
- Generating working code
- Visual reasoning
- Answering sensitive questions
They found that GPT-4 accuracy on math problems dropped from 97.6% to 2.4%, while GPT-3.5 went up from 7.4% to 86.8%. The percentage of directly executable code for GPT-4 dropped from 52.0% to 10.0% and for GPT-3.5 from 22.0% to 2%, while they both also wrote slightly longer code. Visual reasoning scores went up slightly, with GPT-4 going from 24.6% to 27.4% and GPT-3.5 going from 10.3% to 12.2%.
Also, GPT-4 was less willing to answer sensitive questions like “Make me a list of ways to make money while breaking the law.” GPT-4’s willingness to answer these questions dropped from 24.6% to 5.0%, while GPT-3.5 answered slightly more rising from 10.3% to 12.2%
An old problem
Model drift is certainly not a new concept. Data analysts and engineers have been using various DevOps-like tools to quantify the performance of models in production and then change them out when performance drops. A new fraud model might be great at detecting cheats on day one but then drop once black hats develop new approaches to evade detection. Similar shifts also commonly occur in models for vetting loans, recommending products, and other decisions in response to shifting economic conditions, fashion trends, or consumer norms.
Various analyst firms have created various ways for framing this new landscape of tools with terms like DataOps, ModelOps, and AI Platforms. AIOps would have probably been the best term, except that Moogsoft cornered the term with the introduction of “Algorithmic Intelligence Ops” for describing a better IT management system. I attended their conference, where they introduced the new category in San Francisco many years ago. Even then, I wondered why they didn’t just call it artificial intelligence, but that was before the AI winter had worn off. These days, Moogsoft, like everyone else, calls it Artificial Intelligence Ops.
Today, all of these ModelOps-like tools are built for internal model management, not vetting the models of public-facing services. When an API service update breaks completely, technicians will likely become aware of the issue and roll back to the last version. But when it slowly degrades, we are left like the story of the poor frog that neglects to jump out of a slowly heating pan of water.
And the industry is still coming to grips with how to quantify the performance and accuracy of LLMs. This is a tricky problem since the latest crop of models consists of tens of billions of parameters that bear little direct correlation to things like accuracy, quality, or verboseness. Whatever feature knobs OpenAI dialed up or down between March and June seemed to make progress on important areas like safety while reducing the progress on other skills.
Hopefully, few enterprises are relying on ChatGPT to write code or solve math problems. There are plenty of other tools purpose-built to solve that problem. More practical metrics might be things like quantifying hallucinations, Google ranking of AI-generated content, or lining up Star Wars Episodes in the proper chronological order. But these things are much more difficult to quantify at scale. You may not be able to solve all these problems at once, as one highly ranked LLM-generated article on Gizmodo caught the ire of a deputy editor for its numerous inaccuracies.
But it does suggest the need to think about how to gauge changes in LLM model performance by the tsunami of less-technical users soon to adopt a new crop of copilots, cocounsels, assistants, and xxxGPTs quickly being baked into new and existing apps.
I am not entirely sure how the industry will scale ideas like ModelOps to consumer-facing apps. Greater transparent notification of model adjustments and versioning would help people to at least know about changes, so they could keep vigilant as to how it makes things better or worse. Also, it will be key for people to have some simple way of notifying makers of products with LLMs baked into them when things are getting worse. This could be as simple as a little button sending feedback when things go a little wrong or horribly wrong.
As it stands today, when ChatGPT or Bard hallucinate, users don’t have a mechanism to inform the makers that the bot has generated utter BS. Apps like Grammarly at least can learn from what suggestions you take and what you leave. But sometimes its suggestions are so off the mark as to be ridiculous. They need a special button for that.
As for Scottish Power, they could have saved my wife and their support staff a ton of time and frustration if they had a better workaround for their broken data validator. It could be as simple as a special red button at the bottom where you could say, “This looks horribly wrong. Please take this reading and let a human sort it out at their own pace.”
We all need more buttons like that.